Who is A Mubtadi’?

Who is A Mubtadi’?

(Innovator)

Compiled & Translated

by

Abbas Abu Yahya

 

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah (d.728 A.H.) -Rahimullaah- said :

‘The Bida’ by which a person would be counted as from the Ahl-ul-Ahwa (the people who follow desires) is that which is well known by the people of knowledge of the Sunnah in it opposing the Book and the Sunnah; such as the Bida’ of the Khawarij[1], Rawafidah[2], al-Qadareeyah[3] and the Murjiah[4].’

[From: ‘Majmoo’ al-Fatawa Ibn Taymeeyah’ 35/414]

 

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah (d.728 A.H.) -Rahimullaah- said :

Whoever opposes the clear Book, and the elaborate Sunnah or that which the Salaf of the Ummah held a consensus about, and this opposition is without a valid reason, then this person is dealt in the same manner in which the People of Bida’ are dealt with.’

[From: ‘Majmoo’ al-Fatawa Ibn Taymeeyah’ 35/414]

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah (d.728 A.H.) -Rahimullaah- said :

Whoever worshipped with an act of worship which is not obligatory nor recommended, and he believed that it was obligatory or recommended, then he is a misguided Mubtada’, and this is an evil Bida’ not a good Bida’, and the imams of the Deen are in agreement about this, since Allaah is not worshipped except with that which is obligatory or recommended.’

[From: ‘Majmoo’ al-Fatawa Ibn Taymeeyah’ 1/160]

Distinction Between a Bida’ and Ijtihad

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah (d.728 A.H.) -Rahimullaah- said :

‘And many from those of the Salaf and those who of the consecutive generations said and acted upon that which is a Bida’ and they were not aware that it was a Bida’, either due to a weak hadeeth which they thought was authentic, or due to what they understood of the Ayaat which were not the intent of the Ayaat, or due to an opinion that they held in an issue where the text did not reach them.’

[From: ‘Majmoo’ al-Fatawa Ibn Taymeeyah’ 19/191]

Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah (d.728 A.H.) -Rahimullaah- said :

‘As for the one whose sin is hidden or performs a Bida’ in secret, that Bida’ does not take a person outside of Islaam, and this person is not made Hijra (boycotted) from, on the contrary the person who is made Hijra from is the one who calls to Bida’.’

[From: ‘Majmoo’ al-Fatawa Ibn Taymeeyah’ 24/175]

Shaykh Rabee’ al-Madkhalee was asked:

‘Question: Which Bida’ is it by which a person is counted as being outside the circle of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamma’?

The Answer:

‘The Bida’ such as of al-Qadr[5], Bida’ of al-Irjaa[6], Bida’ of ar-Rafd[7], Bida’ of Kharooj[8], and the Soofeeyah Bida’ such as the Mawlid[9] which has Shirk and any other types of Mawlid.  Making journeys to graves and other types of Bida’ which are similar to this – may Allaah bless you.

In having loyalty to the Ahl-ul-Bida’ a person becomes from amongst them, and likewise if he aids them and defends them.

It was said to Ahmad bin Hanbal: ‘Indeed some people sit with the people of Bida’.’

Ahmad bin Hanbal said: ‘Advise him.’

The person said: ‘But he rejected the advice.’

Ahmad said: ‘Count him from amongst them.’

So, the one who sits with the Ahl-ul-Bida’ and associates himself with them then conclude from him that he is sick and that he is in agreement with these people, and regarding this point there are evidences, from them the saying of the Messenger :

‘The souls are enlisted soldiers, those who become familiar with each other, associate with one another, and those who oppose each other, differ.’

So this person who associates himself and becomes familiar with Ahl-ul-Bida’ then it is evident that there is an agreement and similarity between the matters, the two people and the two groups.

To clarify, what we have mentioned is concerning the one who leaves the circle of Ahl-ul-Sunnah wal-Jamma’.’

[Taken from: ‘Fatawa Fadeelata Shaykh Rabee’ al-Madkhalee’ 14/153]

 

Shaykh Rabee’ al-Madkhalee was asked:

Question: What are the rulings concerning the people of Bida’?

Answer:

‘Indeed these people are divided into those who are Du’waat (callers to Bida’) and those who do not call to Bida’.

As for those who call to Bida’, then these people can be given punishments which have been mentioned by the Imams of Islaam. From these punishments are banishment, just as Umar banished Sabeeg and others. Also from those punishments, are capital punishment, like they killed al-Ja’ad bin Dirham and al-Halaaj and others from the leaders of Bida’ and misguidance.

As for their followers: then these are guided and it is explained to them and they are called to Allaah with wisdom and good exhortation.’

[Taken from: ‘Fatawa Fadeelata Shaykh Rabee’ al-Madkhalee’ 14/155]

 

Shaykh Rabee’ al-Madkhalee wrote:

When is a man treated as Ahl-ul-Bida’

‘Shaykh ul-Islaam Ibn Taymeeyah said: ‘If the scholars of the Companions and those who followed them and those after them differed in a matter then they would follow the command of Allaah in His saying:  <<  (And) if you differ in anything amongst yourselves, refer it to Allaah and His Messenger, if you believe in Allaah and in the Last Day. That is better and more suitable for final determination. >> [4:59]

And they would debate an issue, in a consultative, advising manner. And perhaps they would differ in a knowledge based practical issue, yet, they would maintain their friendship and practice restrain to aid brotherhood in the Deen.

However, whoever opposes the clear Book, and the elaborate Sunnah or that which the Salaf of the Ummah held a consensus about, and the opposition is without excuse, then this person is dealt in the same manner as the People of Bida’.’

Abu Muhammad Abdullah bin Abi Zayed al-Qayrawani (386) in his book ‘al- Jamia’:

‘And there is a saying of the Ahl-ul-Sunnah: that this person (of the people of Bida’) is not excused, because his Ijtihad (exertion in deriving a ruling) attracted him to Bida’; because the Khawarij made Ijtihad in interpreting, yet they were not excused. Their (erroneous) interpretation caused them to rebel against the Companions. The Messenger – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – labeled them as those that exited from the Deen. But as for Ijtihad (exertion in deriving a ruling) the Messenger – sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam – made it such that the Mujtahid (the person who derives a ruling) in rulings is rewarded even if he made a mistake in that ruling.’

[Taken from: ‘al-Muhajjah al-Baydah fee Himayah as-Sunnah al-Ghara’ by Rabee’ al-Madkhalee p.144-145]


[1] Rebelling against the Muslim leader.

[2] The Shia, those who rejected the Sunnah and the Companions.

[3] Those who reject pre-destination.

[4] Those who do not accept that Eemaan increases and decreases.

[5] Those who reject pre-destination.

[6] Those who do not accept that Eemaan increases and decreases.

[7] The Shia, those who rejected the Sunnah and the Companions.

[8] Rebelling against the Muslim leader.

[9] Celebrating the Prophet’s birthday

 

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